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Libro 1. 7.87 Caesar sends at first young Brutus, with six cohorts, and afterward Caius Fabius, his lieutenant, with seven others: finally, as they fought more obstinately, he leads up fresh men to the assistance of his soldiers. Embassadors are sent to Caesar on this subject. At this point in his commentary, Caesar gives a thorough description of Germanic culture, customs, and animals. The Romans stop the Carnutes from waging war against the Bituriges. Several of our soldiers were unexpectedly wounded by these, and left the battle. The Germans retreat, after slaying many and taking several horses. Reserving the Aedui and Arverni, [to try] if he could gain over, through their influence, their respective states, he distributes one of the remaining captives to each soldier, throughout the entire army, as plunder. 7.69 The town itself was situated on the top of a hill, in a very lofty position, so that it did not appear likely to be taken, except by a regular siege. Among them is Dumnorix, a rebellious noble of the Aedui. The Gauls within, despairing of forcing the fortifications in the plains on account of the greatness of the works, attempt the places precipitous in ascent: hither they bring the engines which they had prepared; by the immense number of their missiles they dislodge the defenders from the turrets: they fill the ditches with clay and hurdles, then clear the way; they tear down the rampart and breast-work with hooks. There was a commanding view from the entire camp, which occupied a ridge of hills; and the minds of all the soldiers anxiously awaited the issue of the battle. 7.75 While those things are carried on at Alesia, the Gauls, having convened a council of their chief nobility, determine that all who could bear arms should not be called out, which was the opinion of Vercingetorix, but that a fixed number should be levied from each state; lest, when so great a multitude assembled together, they could neither govern nor distinguish their men, nor have the means of supplying them with corn. When many were evidently taking the side of the Gauls and Germanics, the time had come for him to act on public opinion. The Arverni and Sequani decide to get help in their struggle from Germanic mercenaries from across the Rhine, led by a king named Ariovistus. Behind these he raised a rampart and wall twelve feet high; to this he added a parapet and battlements, with large stakes cut like stags' horns, projecting from the junction of the parapet and battlements, to prevent the enemy from scaling it, and surrounded the entire work with turrets, which were eighty feet distant from one another. Having, therefore, cut down the trunks of trees or very thick branches, and having stripped their tops of the bark, and sharpened them into a point, he drew a continued trench every where five feet deep. Accordingly, drawing out their troops, they encamp before the town, and cover the nearest trench with hurdles and fill it up with earth, and make ready for a sally and every casualty. In this manner he prepares to await the succors from Gaul, and carry on the war. Dumnorix violently opposes being taken over to Britain, and flees back to his homeland. Later, more problems arise surrounding a tribal conflict in Gaul. To them are assigned men selected from each state, by whose advice the war should be conducted. The army of the Gauls had filled all the space under the wall, comprising a part of the hill which looked to the rising sun, and had drawn in front a trench and a stone wall six feet high. 7.78 When different opinions were expressed, they determined that those who, owing to age or ill health, were unserviceable for war, should depart from the town, and that themselves should try every expedient before they had recourse to the advice of Critognatus: however, that they would rather adopt that design, if circumstances should compel them and their allies should delay, than accept any terms of a surrender or peace. The Allobroges, placing guards along the course of the Rhine, defend their frontiers with great vigilance and energy. Raising a shout suddenly, that by this intimation those who were besieged in the town might learn their arrival, they began to cast down hurdles and dislodge our men from the rampart by slings, arrows, and stones, and executed the other movements which are requisite in storming. The besieged, beholding from the town the slaughter and flight of their countrymen, despairing of safety, lead back their troops from the fortifications. Ambiorix deceives the Romans by saying that the attack was made without his consent, and furthermore advises them to flee because a huge Germanic army is coming from across the Rhine. As a show of force, Caesar constructs a sturdy wooden bridge across the Rhine and crosses into Germania, alarming the Germans. 7.70 The work having been begun, a cavalry action ensues in that plain, which we have already described as broken by hills, and extending three miles in length. De his eandem fere, quam reliquae gentes, habentopinionem: Apollinem morbos depellere, Minervam operum atque artificiorum initia tradere, Iovem imperium caelestiumtenere, Martem bella regere. Later, the Veneti, a seafaring tribe on the western coast of Gaul, begin a rebellion against Rome. Roman troops, led by Q. Titurius Sabinus and L. Aurunculeius Cotta are wintering among the Eburones when they are attacked by the Eburones, led by Ambiorix and Cativolcus. Accordingly, the Romans stopped their pursuit and headed for the Aedui town of Bibracte. 7.68 All his cavalry being routed, Vercingetorix led back his troops in the same order as he had arranged them before the camp, and immediately began to march to Alesia, which is a town of the Mandubii, and ordered the baggage to be speedily brought forth from the camp, and follow him closely. Vercingetorix, a young nobleman of the Arverni, gathers troops, and with the support of neighboring tribes is given supreme command of the Gallic armies. When the Gauls were confident that their countrymen were the conquerors in the action, and beheld our men hard pressed by numbers, both those who were hemmed in by the line of circumvallation and those who had come to aid them, supported the spirits of their men by shouts and yells from every quarter. De Bello Gallico consists of eight books: seven written by Caesar himself, and the eighth book added later by Aulus Hirtius, one of Caesar's generals. What courage do you think would our relatives and friends have, if eighty thousand men were butchered in one spot, supposing that they should be forced to come to an action almost over our corpses? The wealthiest man of the Helvetii, Orgetorix, convinced his countrymen that they should leave their homeland (modern day Switzerland) because they are too constricted by the surrounding rivers and mountains (the Jura Mountains, the Rhône and Lake Geneva, and the Rhine) . Having left this interval, he drew two trenches fifteen feet broad, and of the same depth; the innermost of them, being in low and level ground, he filled with water conveyed from the river. Huic, cum proelio dimicare constituerunt, ea quae bello ceperint plerumque devovent: cumsuperaverunt, animalia capta immolant reliquasque res 7.65 The only guards provided against all these contingencies were twenty-two cohorts, which were collected from the entire province by Lucius Caesar, the lieutenant, and opposed to the enemy in every quarter. Cativolcus, the aged king of one half of the Eburones curses Ambiorix and commits suicide because he wishes neither to engage in war nor flee from his home. Caesar thought that further additions should be made to these works, in order that the fortifications might be defensible by a small number of soldiers. They came together in great numbers and from every quarter to the same place. Some English editions state that Astérix's village of indomitable Gauls is the "fourth part" of Gaul, not yet having been conquered by Caesar. Septem libros scripsit singulos, dum bellum contra hostes Gallicos gerit, octavus autem ab Aulo Hirtio familiarissimo Caesari conscriptus est. When these came to the Roman fortifications, weeping, they begged of the soldiers by every entreaty to receive them as slaves and relieve them with food. Caesar stops all preparations while Dumnorix is hunted down and slain. The principal struggle is at the upper lines, to which as we have said Vergasillaunus was sent. C. IVLI CAESARIS COMMENTARII DE BELLO GALLICO LIBER PRIMVS - Caesar's Commentaries On The Gallic War Book I [I.1] Gallia as a whole is divided into three parts, of which the first the Belgae inhabit, another the Aquitani, the third, who in their own language are called Celtae, in ours are called Galli. After renewing the action, and repulsing the enemy, he marches in the direction in which he had sent Labienus, drafts four cohorts from the nearest redoubt, and orders part of the cavalry to follow him, and part to make the circuit of the external fortifications and attack the enemy in the rear. These were reviewed in the country of the Aedui, and a calculation was made of their numbers: commanders were appointed: the supreme command is intrusted to Commius the Atrebatian, Viridomarus and Eporedirix the Aeduans, and Vergasillaunus the Arvernan, the cousin-german of Vercingetorix. He himself goes to the rest, and exhorts them not to succumb to the toil; he shows them that the fruits of all former engagements depend on that day and hour. Commentarii de Bello Gallico - Commentarii de Bello Gallico. The Gauls had scattered archers and light-armed infantry here and there, among their cavalry, to give relief to their retreating troops, and sustain the impetuosity of our cavalry. In other parts, likewise, our men pursued to the camp the retreating enemy, and did not give them an opportunity of rallying. The Senate passes a decree that Pompey and Caesar should each contribute one legion to the Parthian war in the East. Some are casting missiles, others, forming a testudo, advance to the attack; fresh men by turns relieve the wearied. • The!Gauls!gave!me!this!seOlementfreely! The contest is maintained on both sides with the utmost vigor; Caesar sends the Germans to aid our troops when distressed, and draws up the legions in front of the camp, lest any sally should be suddenly made by the enemy's infantry. The cavalry unanimously shout out, "That they ought to bind themselves by a most sacred oath, that he should not be received under a roof, nor have access to his children, parents, or wife, who shall not twice have ridden through the enemy's army." 7.71 Vercingetorix adopts the design of sending away all his cavalry by night, before the fortifications should be completed by the Romans. In Book 5, Chapter 44 the Commentarii de Bello Gallico notably mentions Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo, two Roman centurions of the 11th Legion. Caesar puts his legions in winter quarters among various tribes of Gaul. When battle between the Germanics and the Romans finally commences, there is fierce hand-to-hand combat. The Bellovaci try to get other tribes to join in their rebellion. Yet such was the unanimity of the Gauls in asserting their freedom, and recovering their ancient renown in war, that they were influenced neither by favors, nor by the recollection of private friendship; and all earnestly directed their energies and resources to that war, and collected eight thousand cavalry, and about two hundred and forty thousand infantry. A great slaughter ensues; some leave their horses, and endeavor to cross the ditch and climb the wall. A great slaughter ensues; some leave their horses, and endeavor to cross the ditch and climb the wall. The cavalry is suddenly seen in the rear of the Gauls; the other cohorts advance rapidly; the enemy turn their backs; the cavalry intercept them in their flight, and a great slaughter ensues. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization. Embassies are sent by them in all directions: as far as they can prevail by influence, authority, or money, they strive to excite the state [to revolt]. The Suebi try repeatedly to bargain with Caesar but to no avail. Jül Sezar'ın Galya savaşları üzerine yorumlar . 7.82 While the Gauls were at a distance from the fortification, they did more execution, owing to the immense number of their weapons: after they came nearer, they either unawares empaled themselves on the spurs, or were pierced by the mural darts from the ramparts and towers, and thus perished. Eporedirix and Viridomarus, youths of the greatest promise, submit reluctantly to Vercingetorix. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. Login or signup free. The Aedui, as they could not defend themselves and their possessions against them, send embassadors to Caesar to ask assistance, [pleading] that they had at all times so well deserved of the Roman people, that their fields ought not to have been laid waste-their children carried off into slavery-their towns stormed, almost within sight of our army. After receiving many wounds on all sides, and having forced no part of the works, when day drew nigh, fearing lest they should be surrounded by a sally made from the higher camp on the exposed flank, they retreated to their countrymen. Caesar de sese persona tertia, rarissime prima, uti solet. Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar after the battle of Alesia. On the other side he sends the Gabali and the nearest cantons of the Arverni against the Helvii; he likewise sends the Ruteni and Cadurci to lay waste the territories of the Volcae Arecomici. Two days later, when Ariovistus requests to speak with Caesar again, Caesar instead sends C. Valerius Procillus who is ambushed and taken captive by Ariovistus. Caesar orders the legions which he had drawn up in front of the rampart to advance a little. Do you doubt their fidelity and firmness because they have not come at the appointed day? Aedui de consilio legatorum, quos Caesar ad exercitum reliquerat, copias … After settling on a temporary truce, the Germans unexpectedly attack the Romans, causing casualties. The Mandubii, who had admitted them into the town, are compelled to go forth with their wives and children. Vercingetorix, having convened a council the following day, declares, "That he had undertaken that war, not on account of his own exigences, but on account of the general freedom; and since he must yield to fortune, he offered himself to them for either purpose, whether they should wish to atone to the Romans by his death, or surrender him alive. Caesar moves his troops to Vesontio (modern Besançon), the capital city of the Sequani. 3 Aedui de consilio legatorum, ... timore poenae exterriti consilia clam de bello inire incipiunt civitatesque reliquas legationibus sollicitant. What then? There was, on the north side, a hill, which our men could not include in their works, on account of the extent of the circuit, and had necessarily made their camp in ground almost disadvantageous, and pretty steep. Eight rows of this kind were dug, and were three feet distant from each other. 7.69 The town itself was situated on the top of a hill, in a very lofty position, so that it did not appear likely to be taken, except by a regular siege. The Remi, Lingones, and Treviri were absent from this meeting; the two former because they attached themselves to the alliance of Rome; the Treviri because they were very remote and were hard pressed by the Germans; which was also the reason of their being absent during the whole war, and their sending auxiliaries to neither party. After warning them not to help Ambiorix, he heads toward the Treveri. Before the town lay a plain of about three miles in length; on every other side hills at a moderate distance, and of an equal degree of height, surrounded the town. They engage on all sides at once and every expedient is adopted. Caesar personally stays in Gaul all winter due to the risk of unrest among the Gallic tribes. Caesar describes a conflict with the Gallic tribe known as the Helvetii. Labienus, wishing to tempt the Treveri to attack in a situation favorable to the Romans, orders his men to break camp as though they are retreating. For in what was that war like this? The Gauls burn all the towns of the Bituriges except Avaricum, which they decide to defend. In this manner he prepares to await the succors from Gaul, and carry on the war. Later, Caesar makes arrangements for an assault on Britain. In De Bello Gallico 6.21–28, Julius Caesar provides his audience with a picture of Germanic lifestyle and culture. My business is with those who approve of a sally: in whose advice the memory of our ancient prowess seems to dwell in the opinion of you all. But those who had come forth from Alesia returned into the town dejected and almost despairing of success. They surrender Vercingetorix, and lay down their arms. 7.79 In the mean time, Commius and the rest of the leaders, to whom the supreme command had been intrusted, came with all their forces to Alesia, and having occupied the entire hill, encamped not more than a mile from our fortifications. Since Caesar's term of office in Gaul is almost over, he does not wish to get involved in another war just as he is finishing his term. Aedui capti ad Caesarem perducuntur: Cotus, praefectus equitum, quicontroversiam cum Convictolitavi proximis comitiis habuerat, et Cavarillus, qui post defectionem Litavicci pedestribus copiispraefuerat, et Eporedorix, quo duce ante adventum Caesaris Aedui cum Sequanis bello contenderant. The idea uppermost in the minds of both parties is, that the present is the time in which they would have the fairest opportunity of making a struggle; the Gauls despairing of all safety, unless they should succeed in forcing the lines: the Romans expecting an end to all their labors if they should gain the day.          Sexual Content CAESAR: DE BELLO GALLICO Book 6. Instead, he turns his attention to the Treveri and Ambiorix. To be unable to bear privation for a short time is disgraceful cowardice, not true valor. In order that they [the Gauls] may do so with greater spirit, he would marshal all their forces before the camp, and intimidate the enemy. The Romans defeat Ariovistus, and Caesar is overjoyed to find and rescue C. Valerius Procillus, the envoy who had earlier been captured by Ariovistus. Vercingetorix decides to attack Gergovia, a town of the Boii who are allies of Rome. Some of Caesar's political opponents want to prevent Mark Antony from being elected simply as a way to oppose Caesar. Labienus battles the Parisii, and the entire Gallic war becomes more dangerous as the Aedui, Rome's longtime allies, revolt and try to induce other tribes to revolt as well. Full Text Search Details... 2 ANTONIO RIBEIRO DE ALMEIDA Contos do Entardecer Editora Í N ... ...ória À Zélia, esposa querida, cuja vida tem sido um dos versos de Vinícius : “ De tudo, ao meu amor serei atento”, e aos filhos Cláudi... ...e aos filhos Cláudia e Henrique. Cesare - De Bello Gallico Liber VII . The courage of our men is increased by the additional support of the legions; the enemy being put to flight, hinder one another by their numbers, and as only the narrower gates were left open, are crowded together in them; then the Germans pursue them with vigor even to the fortifications. 7.88 His arrival being known from the color of his robe, and the troops of cavalry, and the cohorts which he had ordered to follow him being seen, as these low and sloping grounds were plainly visible from the eminences, the enemy join battle. At first the Bituriges resist, but then join forces with the Arverni. The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.Rome's war against the Gallic tribes lasted from 58 BC to 50 BC and culminated in the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which a complete Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic over the whole of Gaul (mainly present-day France and Belgium). Caesar thought that further additions should be made to these works, in order that the fortifications might be defensible by a small number of soldiers. For they never have carried on wars on any other terms. Caesar chose a nearby hill to offer battle and the Roman legions stood to face their enemies (De Bello Gallico, I, … Do not utterly deprive them of your aid, for they have spurned all thoughts of personal danger on account of your safety; nor by your folly, rashness, and cowardice, crush all Gaul and doom it to an eternal slavery. But what other motive or wish have the Romans, than, induced by envy, to settle in the lands and states of those whom they have learned by fame to be noble and powerful in war, and impose on them perpetual slavery? On this circumstance being announced, Caesar orders his cavalry also to form three divisions and charge the enemy. Caesar orders the legions which he had drawn up in front of the rampart to advance a little. 7.67 This proposal receiving general approbation, and all being forced to take the oath, on the next day the cavalry were divided into three parts, and two of these divisions made a demonstration on our two flanks; while one in front began to obstruct our march. However, the attacks did reveal a weak point in the fortifications and the combined forces on the inside and the outside almost made a breakthrough. The Sigambri, a Germanic tribe, come and take a large amount of cattle. Ariovistus and Caesar conduct many negotiations, including an unusual face-to-face conference. Embassadors are sent to Caesar on this subject. Caesar's troops counterattack and put the Belgae to flight. He orders all boats to assemble at Portus Itius (near modern day Boulogne-sur-Mer). But Marcus Antonius, and Caius Trebonius, the lieutenants, to whom the defense of these parts had been allotted, draughted troops from the redoubts which were more remote, and sent them to aid our troops, in whatever direction they understood that they were hard pressed. Two rivers, on two different sides, washed the foot of the hill. The leaders of the enemy, having reconnoitered the country by their scouts, select from the entire army sixty thousand men, belonging to those states, which bear the highest character for courage; they privately arrange among themselves what they wished to be done, and in what manner; they decide that the attack should take place when it should seem to be noon. Suddenly, the occupied tribes strike at the vulnerable Romans, posing a grave threat. The contest is maintained on both sides with the utmost vigor; Caesar sends the Germans to aid our troops when distressed, and draws up the legions in front of the camp, lest any sally should be suddenly made by the enemy's infantry. "The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar" (menu page linking 8 books), translated by W.A. Labienus wages war against the Treviri. Caesar then went back to Gergovia and realised that his siege would fail. Caesar holds a council of Gaul, but the Senones, Carnutes, and Treveri do not send representatives. The Treveri prepare to attack the camp of Labienus. 7.66 In the mean time, whilst these things are going on, the forces of the enemy from the Arverni, and the cavalry which had been demanded from all Gaul, meet together. [4] The 2005 television series Rome gives a fictionalized account of Caesar's rise and fall, featuring Kevin McKidd as the character of Lucius Vorenus and Ray Stevenson as the character of Titus Pullo of 13th Legion . 7.71 Vercingetorix adopts the design of sending away all his cavalry by night, before the fortifications should be completed by the Romans. And I would approve of this opinion (for honor is a powerful motive with me), could I foresee no other loss, save that of life; but let us, in adopting our design, look back on all Gaul, which we have stirred up to our aid. At the same time, Vercingetorix, having heard the shout, gives the signal to his troops by a trumpet, and leads them forth from the town. Bohn (1869), Classics.MIT.edu, 2009. They surrender Vercingetorix, and lay down their arms. If you can not be assured by their dispatches, since every avenue is blocked up, take the Romans as evidence that there approach is drawing near; since they, intimidated by alarm at this, labor night and day at their works. - Kommentierter Text Bearbeiten. One example is having Caesar talk about himself in the third person as in the book. The Cimbri, after laying Gaul waste, and inflicting great calamities, at length departed from our country, and sought other lands; they left us our rights, laws, lands, and liberty. Thus they returned to the town without accomplishing their object. To be unable to bear privation for a short time is disgraceful cowardice, not true valor. 7.81 The Gauls, after the interval of a day and after making, during that time, an immense number of hurdles, scaling-ladders, and iron hooks, silently went forth from the camp at midnight and approached the fortifications in the plain. Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesar's death. He creates a false retreat to lure Vercingetorix into battle, but this fails and the Romans are defeated by Vercingetorix. But Caesar, placing guards on the rampart, forbade them to be admitted. This article will be permanently flagged as inappropriate and made unaccessible to everyone. I - L'assemblea dei capi. GALLIA est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam … Caesar moves quickly to rendezvous with his legions wintering among the Lingones before Vercingetorix can realize what is happening. Those who voluntarily offer themselves to death are more easily found than those who would calmly endure distress. At that very moment, the Sigambri arrive, throwing the Roman camp into a panic. 7.64 The latter demands hostages from the remaining states; nay, more, appointed a day for this proceeding; he orders all the cavalry, fifteen thousand in number, to quickly assemble here; he says that he will be content with the infantry which he had before, and would not tempt fortune nor come to a regular engagement; but since he had abundance of cavalry, it would be very easy for him to prevent the Romans from obtaining forage or corn, provided that they themselves should resolutely destroy their corn and set fire to their houses; by which sacrifice of private property they would evidently obtain perpetual dominion and freedom. He, having issued from the camp at the first watch, and having almost completed his march a little before the dawn, hid himself behind the mountain, and ordered his soldiers to refresh themselves after their labor during the night. A major aim of the book was to gain the Romans' suffrages. 7.79 In the mean time, Commius and the rest of the leaders, to whom the supreme command had been intrusted, came with all their forces to Alesia, and having occupied the entire hill, encamped not more than a mile from our fortifications. 7.67 This proposal receiving general approbation, and all being forced to take the oath, on the next day the cavalry were divided into three parts, and two of these divisions made a demonstration on our two flanks; while one in front began to obstruct our march. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. 100% (1/1) Ernst. Caesar, expecting further treachery, takes these Germans prisoner. A few Roman survivors make it back to their winter quarters where they commit suicide that night. They called this a lily from its resemblance to that flower. Vercingetorix tells his troops that they must adopt a new strategy: burn all the towns and crops in the area so as to starve the Romans. edited by T. Rice Holmes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1914) Previous: Table of contents: ... qui iam ante se populi Romani imperio subiectos dolerent liberius atque audacius de bello consilia inire incipiunt. Do you doubt their fidelity and firmness because they have not come at the appointed day? Therefore they should attack them on their march, when encumbered. On reconnoitering the situation of the city, finding that the enemy were panic-stricken, because the cavalry in which they placed their chief reliance, were beaten, he encouraged his men to endure the toil, and began to draw a line of circumvallation round Alesia. It contains many details and employs many stylistic devices to promote Caesar's political interests.[3]. The Aedui request Vercingetorix to come to them and communicate his plans of conducting the war. The least elevation of ground, added to a declivity, exercises a momentous influence. Caius Antistius Reginus, and Caius Caninius Rebilus, two of the lieutenants, with two legions, were in possession of this camp. 7.74 After completing these works, saving selected as level ground as he could, considering the nature of the country, and having inclosed an area of fourteen miles, he constructed, against an external enemy, fortifications of the same kind in every respect, and separate from these, so that the guards of the fortifications could not be surrounded even by immense numbers, if such a circumstance should take place owing to the departure of the enemy's cavalry; and in order that the Roman soldiers might not be compelled to go out of the camp with great risk, ho orders all to provide forage and corn for thirty days.

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