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language aptitude in second language learning

Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. This could be noticed through the two studies of Wesche (1981) and Hwu and Sun (2012) in which MLAT were utilized. Critical period hypothesis (reviewed by Ortega, 2009) suggested biology constraint on L2 learning outcomes. Dekeyser (2000) indicated that the participants whose age on set after fifteen and high GJT scores were reported to have high level of analytic ability. For this reason, although it has been proved that strategies were used more in EFL context to compensate the lack of natural exposure, there was still lack of evidence to conclude that ESL learners used fewer strategies than their counterparts. Initially, it was reported that early learners showed more evidence in memory while late learners strongly showed the ability of language analysis (analytic ability). Also, it was suggested that aptitude only played a role in late learners’ L2 learning (Dekeyser, 2000; Abrahamsson & Hyltenstam, 2009; Granena & Long, 2012). Havranek and Cesnik’s (2001) evidence regarding aptitude-interaction was in line with what had been proved by Dekeyser (1993). Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009) pointed out that the late-learner group had higher aptitude in comparison with young learner group, suggesting that aptitude was necessary for late-learners to reach near-nativeness level in L2. It influences the learner and therefore dominates the particular individual … Language Aptitude. The learners taking part in Granena’s (2014) study were L1 Chinese living in Spain; whose age of arrival ranged from three to six and length of residence varied from elven to twenty-eight). For the latter experimental group, besides that the error was also pointed out as well as a correct element was supplied, the metalinguistic explanation was also given. In the past, second language (L2) aptitude research was conducted largely to better the placement and selection processes utilized by governmental language programs. Therefore, with the aim to bridge the gap and clarify the development of issues of language aptitude, this paper begins by providing details of the two main studies. The findings from some reviewed studies suggested a connection between these two ID factors: language aptitude and motivation. This finding of Dekeyser (2000) was also in line with which was proved by Harley and Hart (1997). The interaction between aptitude and SLA will be explored in a more detailed way in the next parts. Afterwards, based on the criterion of language aptitude, the participants were divided into one of the three groups of Audio-visual Method, Analytical approach, or Functional approach. On the contrary, explicit correction worked for both high and low WMC or LAA. The interaction of language aptitude and instructional approaches of L2 grammar. According to Miyake and Friedman (1998), working memory was conceptualized as a component of foreign language aptitude; there have been many studies conducted to examine the interaction between working memory and L2 learning. However, strong associations between phonological working memory and L2 aptitude have been previously found in early-stage learners only, … Although the reviewed studies sharing things in common as well as differences, it is undeniable that understanding language learners’ aptitude profile will be beneficial for L2 instructors in terms of choosing appropriate instructional approaches. Wesche (1981) focused on matching learners with suitable instructional approach and looked at the general results, whereas Hwu and Sun (2012) investigated how language aptitude of learners could mediate the effects of instructional methods. The results from Hwu and Sun’s (2012) study pointed out four main findings. There were two groups of participants joining Smemoe and Haslam’s (2012) study: one in EFL context and another in ESL one. However, Winke (2013) claimed that aptitude had direct impacts on speaking more than it did with other skills. Specifically, the commonly-used version of LLAMA was called “LLAMA suite” which consisted of four subtests. The second point is that both Wesche (1981) as well as Hwu and Sun (2012) explored the interaction of foreign language aptitude and instructional approach, there is a difference between these two papers. Introduction and Overview. Additionally, the connection between aptitude and feedback is reviewed. Along with PLAB to capture two groups’ language aptitude, pretest and posttest design with two tasks (three sentences with difficult phonemes for English learners and open-ended question responding task) were utilized to test the learners’ pronunciation proficiency. Regarding the target feature, the Spanish verb gustar was chosen to focus because it has been considered as a problematic language feature for Spanish learners. In other words, from the view of connection between language aptitude and feedback, Dekeyser’s (1993) provided some positive correlation between these two factors. It is worth addressing how the link between language aptitude and memory as well as how memory has been perceived as a component of language aptitude. Language aptitude is known as a predictor of language learners’ rate and success. More specifically, according to Yilmaz (2013), when it comes to learner groups with either high working memory capacity or high language analytic ability, explicit feedback does work better than recast. To read the full article about language aptitude and foreign language instruction, entitled Foreign Language Instruction: Implementing the Best Teaching Methods, click on the following link:  https://www.aera.net/Portals/38/docs/Publications/Foreign%20Language%20Instruction.pdf, https://www.aera.net/Portals/38/docs/Publications/Foreign%20Language%20Instruction.pdf. According to Erlam (2005), it could be interpreted that deductive approach, in which explicit rules and focus-on-form activities were applied into teaching, seemed to bring benefits to all language learners regardless their language aptitude. Last but not least, the evidence of interaction between language aptitude and motivation was found. Approaching foreign language aptitude from a novel perspective, Grigorenko (2000) conceptualized language aptitude as the ability to handle novelty and ambiguity when it came to L2 learning. In terms of language level, this type of test was operationalized at four aspects of lexical, morphological, semantic, as well as syntactic. More specifically, the participants whose scores on Word in Sentences and Spelling Cues were high were matched with analytical approach. To be begin with, the construct of language aptitude and how its operationalization has experienced changes over the time in SLA is addressed. Firstly, the connection between aptitude, test, and language structure was found. Then, they were pretested with two types of assessment, which were written sentence production and written sentence correction. L2 Spanish learners participating in the study were asked to complete language aptitude test, including: memory for text, associate memory (MLAT), and grammatical sensitivity (MLAT). They may feel that an unwritten language is not a 'real' language. Using a quasiexperimental design, 66 secondary-level learners of English as a foreign language from three intact classes were provided with four hours of instruction on the passive (a difficult structure) and the past progressive (an easy structure). From the opposite viewpoints of Pimsleur (1996) and Gardner and MacIntyre (1992), it was controversial whether motivation should be a component of language aptitude or not. There have not been many studies conducted in this area, and most of the below reviewed studies focus on learners in EFL context. More specifically, Harley and Hart (1997) as well as Dekeyser (2002) touched upon a specific component of language aptitude, analytic ability, to explain for its effects on late-learners’ L2 performance. Individual differences in second language (L2) aptitude have been assumed to depend upon a variety of cognitive and personality factors. Thirdly, the interaction between foreign language aptitude and early learners as well as late ones is also taken into consideration. As previously mentioned, the results of Hwu and Sun (2012) indicated that the participants receiving EI instruction significantly improved when being compared with those in DE group, leading to the conclusion that EI approach would be beneficial for learners with high ability of memory for text. This finding leads to a conclusion that although there was association between late-learners’ aptitude and their L2 proficiency in terms of being near-nativeness, the effects of language aptitude could not be generalized to all actual, nativelike intuition. Thirdly, it was found that in two experimental groups, there was a significant relationship between the learners’ gain scores and their memory-for-text ability. First, both working memory capacity (WMC) and analytic ability (LAA) were found to have impacts on feedback of the two targeted features. Therefore, validity of other test types should be taken into consideration in the future. For instance, for a L2 group which the majority of learners has high analytic ability, the teacher could either go with either inductive approach or structured-input method, as these two methods were proved to be beneficial with this type of language learners (Erlam, 2005). Moreover, the finding of Sheen’s (2007) study offered a pedagogical implication, which is that corrective feedback is facilitative when correction and metalinguistic explanation are provided to respond learners’ errors. Although the researchers realized that language aptitude interacted with young learners when it came to some language features which were sensitive to CPH, the issue needs more future research focusing on examining this type of structure to clarify whether language aptitude can compensate critical period and if aptitude is helpful for young learners to absorb these structures. During this time, Carroll identified four distinct abilities that factored into language aptitude, separate from motivation and verbal intelligence. Especially, the cognitive factor phonological working memory has been conceptualised as language learning device. Apart from the role that intellectual capacity and language aptitude play in a second or foreign language learning (Gardner & Lambert, 1972 cited in Xu 2008), motivation is a major factor in the successful study of language acquisition. Taken these two variables into considerations, several studies have been conducted to examine the connection between learners’ age, language aptitude, and their L2 performance. Secondly, no specific linguistic features were focused in Dekeyser’s (1993); instead, the study covered and analyzed all linguistic features that were corrected by the teachers. Similar to Dekeyser’s (1993) study, Havranek and Cesnik (2001) operationalized feedback as general oral correction. The authors of this AERA publication report that language aptitude in conjunction with motivation is a powerful factor in language learning. 119–154). Language learning aptitude refers to how well compared to others, one can acquire a second language in a specific amount of time and under … Lack of attention to these factors can lead to inefficiencies in learning L2. It shed a light to the fact that late learners with high level of analysis ability could perform significantly better as early learners. Also, the connection between aptitude and motivation, a well-researched individual difference (ID) factor, is reviewed. In other words, according to Winke’s (2013) research, aptitude did not show any superior effects on second language learning when comparing with other variables. The findings from Granena and Long (2012) suggested that with late group (age on set rani from 16 to 29), there was an interaction between aptitude and L2 pronunciation, as well as lexical and collocation. Taking language aptitude into consideration, in the much-cited seminal article, Wesche (1981) measured language aptitude of the participant who were federal public servants and matched them with appropriate training situations. When a person learns a second language (L2), he is not learning the language alone, he is exposed to the values, traditions and the culture associated with Therefore, the question of relevance between these two factors remained unclear. The results demonstrated that all three factors influenced rate of learning. Also, Hummel (2009) explored the impacts of phonological memory on L2 proficiency. Kormos and Safar (2008) indicated that working memory was vital to learners at beginner level. Dekeyser (2000) utilized Words in Sentences part of MLAT to capture the participants’ analytic ability. Regarding language aptitude test, the participants were asked to complete LLAMA R and operation span task. The third subtest, called sound-symbol correspondence, required test-takers to match syllable sounds in an unfamiliar language. Conducted many years later and sharing some differences from the seminal article of Wesche (1981), Hwu and Sun’s (2012) study was done to investigate how language aptitude could mediate the effects of language instruction. To summarize, the three reviewed studies confirmed the connection between learners’ language aptitude and their L2 speaking performance. Next, the link between language aptitude and grammar instructional approach is examined. More specifically, Dekeyser (1993) explored how variables of previous achievement, language aptitude, anxiety, and motivation had impacts on oral feedback. (1981) Language aptitude measures in streaming, matching students with methods, and diagnosis of learner problems. Besides these two major types of tests, CANAL-F test and LLMA test are also utilized to measure language aptitude in many studies, for instance Erlam (2005) and Winke (2013). The results from Hwu, Pan, & Sun (2014) demonstrated the positive impacts of language aptitude on learners’ performance. Moreover, the reviewed studies mainly examined the connection between language aptitude and speaking strategy use in EFL context, while which of ESL context was not thoroughly explained. They may believe that they can only know one language at a time. The participants were asked to complete grammatical sensitivity test, questionnaires of extrinsic motivation and anxiety, as well as fill-in-the-blank Grammar test as grammatical achievement measurement. Owing to the high rate of validity, MLAT and LAB were not only used by Wesche (1981) but it was also utilized by Hwu and Sun (2012). For those who performed well on memory, auditory, and phonetic coding abilities were categorized into group receiving functional approach. Also, it provided a variety of tools for researchers to operationalize the language aptitude construct; MLAT has no longer been the only choice. Dörnyei and Ryan (2015) pointed out some similarities between how Carroll and Sapon (1985) and Pimsleur (1996) conceptualized the notion of foreign language aptitude. Language learning aptitude does not refer to whether or not an individual can or cannot learn a foreign language. For the deductive group, no significant correlation was revealed between language aptitude and test scores.

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